1. We are worried about this fluid situationfull with uncertainty.
A. stable B. suitable
C. changeable D. adaptable
2. The umbrella was ingeniously devisedto fold up into the pocket.
A. seriously B.cleverly
C. attentively D. carefully
3. com#petitors must abide by thejudge's decision
A. keep B. read
C. understand D. obey
4. The details of the costume were totally authentic.
A. outstanding B. real
C. creative D. false
5. She is an artist whose work willundoubtedly withstand the test of time.
A. grade B. attract
C. bear D. suffer
6. The new garment fits herperfectly.
A. clothes B. haircut
C. purse D. necklace
7. The way she looked after her young sisterwas really touching
A. disturbing B. connecting
C. moving D. waving
8. Some newspapers in the west are notably biased.
A. especially B. wholly
C. totally D. fairly
9. The coastal area has very mild winter, but the central plains remain extreme.
A. severe B. hard
C. warm D. dry
10. They have built canals to irrigatethe desert.
A. decorate B. change
C. visit D. water
11. He wore a shabby thin overcoatin the cold winter so that he fell ill.
A. old B. big
C. new D. small
12. His answers were obscure andconfusing.
A. unclear B. obvious
C. clear D. direct
13. Only people over 18 are eligibleto vote.
A. honest B. qualified
C. enabled D. clever
14. The weather was so gorgeous thatmany people went outing.
A. uncontrollable B.pleasant
C. cloudy D. unbearable
15. The latest car model embodies thenew research development.
A. lists B. includes
C. borrows D. broadens
SleepWell to Be Well
1 Doyou often feel tired in the morning even though you’ve been in bed for seven oreight hours the night before? Like many people, you are not sleeping as much asyou think you are. In other words, your sleep efficiency is not that good.
2 Sleepexperts define “sleep efficiency” as the percentage of time lying down that youare actually sleeping. According to explanatory journalism website vox.com#, thescience of sleep efficiency is still young. There is no specific number forefficiency that’s been proven as linked to poor health. However, according to aNew York Times report about sleep quality, some experts estimate a roughballpark (范围) of 85 percent or above as a decent place to be.
3 Shortwavelength blue light, emitted (放出) by the sun and by the screens of com#puters, iPads and smartphones,stops production of the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin (褪黑素) andmakes you feel more alert. Blue light tells your brain it’s daytime. Expertssuggest turning off your com#puters and smartphones one hour or at least 30minutes before bed.
4 Goto bed and wake up at the same time, or relatively the same time, every day.Avoid binge sleeping (狂睡) on the weekend. Consistency is key to a good night’s sleep,especially when it com#es to waking up. When you have a consistent wake-up time,your brain acclimates to this and moves through the sleep cycle in preparationfor you to feel rested and alert at your wake-up time.
5 Oneof the biggest peaks in melatonin production happens during the 1 to 3 pm timeframe, which explains why most people feel sleepy in the afternoon. If youaren’t getting enough sleep at night, you’re likely going to feel anoverwhelming desire to sleep in the afternoon. When this happens, you’re betteroff taking a short nap (less than 30 minutes) than resorting to caffeine orstrong tea to keep you awake. A short nap will give you the rest you need toget through the rest of the afternoon, and you’ll sleep much better in theevening than if you drink caffeine or take a long afternoon nap.
23. Paragraph 2
24. Paragraph 3
25. Paragraph 4
26. Paragraph 5
A. Definethe sleep related terms
C. Turnoff the devices emitting blue light
D. Keepa consistent sleep schedule
E. Improvesleep quality
F. Avoidblue light at night
27. The tiredness in the morning even aftermany hours in bed is due to
28. Sleeping less than 85% of the timespent lying in bed might cause
29. A lower production of the hormone melatoninis due to
30. A strong desire to sleep in theafternoon is the result of
A. along afternoon nap
B. thepeak production of melatonin
D. lowsleep efficiency
E. goodsleep efficiency
F. exposureto blue light
第二篇 Deforestation and Desertification(沙漠化)
The Sahel zone lies between the Sahara desert and the fertilesavannahs(热带大草原)of northern Nigeria and South Sudan. The word sahel com#es from Arabic and means marginal or transitional ,andthis is a good description of these semi-arid (半干旱)lands, whichoccupy much of the Western African countries of Mail, Mauritania, Niger, andChad.
Unfortunately, over the last century the Sahara desert has steadilycrept southwards eating into once productive Sahel lands. United Nationssurveys show that over 70 percent of the dry land in agriculture use in Africahas deteriorated over the last 30 years. Droughts have becom#e more severe, themost recent lasting over twenty years in parts of the Sahel region. The sameprocess of desertification is taking place across southern Africa as theKalahari desert advances into Botswana and parts of South Africa
One of the major causes of this desert advance is poor agriculturalland use, driven by the pressures of increasing population. Overgrazing 一 keeping toomany farm animals on the land一 means that grasses and other plants cannot recover, and scarcewater supplies are exhausted. Overcultivation 一 trying to grow toomany crops on poor land 一 results in the soil becom#ing even less fertile and drier, andbeginning to break up. Soil erosion (侵蚀) follows, and theland turns into desert.
Another cause of desertification is loss of tree cover. Trees arecut down for use as fuel and to clear land for agricultural use. Tree rootshelp to bind the soil together, to conserve moisture, and to provide a habitatfor other plants and animals. When trees are cut down, the soil begins to dryand loosen, wind and rain erosion increase, other plant species die, andeventually the fertile topsoil may be almost entirely lost, leaving only barerock and dust.
The effects of loss of topsoil and increased drought are irreversible.They are, however, preventable. Careful conservation of tree cover andsustainable agricultural land use have been shown to halt deterioration ofsoils and lessen the effects of shortage of rainfall. One project in Kita insouth-west Mali funded by UNDP has involved local com#munities in sustainablemanagement of forest, while at the same time providing a viable(有活力的)agriculturaleconomy. This may be a model for similar projects in other West Africancountries.
36.The Sahel zone is anarea which ___.
A.is covered with sad and grass
B. has a long history
C. occupies much of South Nigeria
D. belongs to Sudan
37. What is the situation about thedesertification in Africa?
A. The deserts are replaced with grasslands
B.The deserts are expanding
C. the deserts are moving northwards
D. the deserts are being deserted
38. The word “deteriorated ” in paragraph 2means ___.
39. What is the root cause ofdesertification?
C. radical climate change
D. disappearance of rare plant species
40. In order to prevent desertification, theauthor proposes ___.
A. making good use of international aids
B.developing a sustainable agricultural economy
C. gaining international support
D. converting agricultural land into forest
Ceremonial (仪式性的) bathing hasexisted for thousands of years and has many forms, one of which is the sauna. TheFinns have perfected the steam bath, or sauna, which may be taken, usually inan enclosed room, by pouring water over hot rocks or as a dry heat bath. TheJapanese, Greeks, Turks and Russians as well as Native Americans have forms ofthe sweat bath in their bathing rituals. (46) Dry heat and steam baths hadadvocates in ancient Rome and pre-Columbian Americans used sweat lodges.
The earliest saunas were probablyunderground caves heated by a fire that naturally filled with smoke as chimneymaking was unknown at that time. A fire kept in a fire-pit would heat the rockwalls of the cave. After reaching full heat, the smoke was let out of the caveand the stones would retain heat for several hours. A few people today saythat the smoke sauna, “savusauna”, is the only true sauna experience and thatall saunas should have at least a background odor or smoke. (47) Today mostsaunas use electric stoves, although gas and wood-burning stoves are available.
Saunas are relaxing and stress relieving. Thosewith muscle aches or arthritis (关节炎) may find that the heat relaxes muscles and relieves pain andinflammation (炎症). Asthma (气喘) patients find that the heat enlarges air passageways of the lungand facilitates breathing. Saunas do not cure the com#mon cold but they may helpto alleviate congestion (阻塞) arid speed recovery time. The body’s core temperature usuallyrises a 1-2 degrees while in the sauna, thus imitating a slight fever.(48)The sauna could be considered to follow the old saying “feed a cold, starvea fever”. The regular use of a sauna may decrease the likelihood of getting acold in the first place.
Sauna is good for your skin as the bloodflow to the skin increases and sweating occurs. Adults sweat about 2 lbs ofwater per hour on average in a sauna. A good sweat removes dirt and grime frompores and gives the skin a healthy glow. The loss in water weight is temporaryas the body’s physiological mechanisms will quickly restore proper volumes. Thecardio vascular system gets a work out as the heart must pump harder and fasterto move blood to the surface for heat exchange. (49) Heart rate mayincrease from 72 beats per minute on average to 100-150 beats per minute.
A normal heart can handle these stressesbut those with heart trouble wishing to begin to use a sauna should seek adoctor’s advice. The elderly and those with diabetes should check with theirdoctor prior to beginning to take saunas. Pregnant women should not takesaunas, particularly in the first three months. (50) Indeed, everyone juststarting out should take short sessions at first to becom#e accustomed to thistype of bath.
Hypertension Drugs Found to Cut Risk of Stroke
Australian doctors declared Monday that a cocktail of simpleantihypertensive drugs can lower the risk of patients suffering a repeat strokeby more than a third. This is the result of their research. The research,presented at a medical conference in Italy over the weekend, has been valuedhighly as a major breakthrough in stroke prevention.
Strokes kill 5 million people a year, and more than 15 millionsuffer non-fatal strokes that often leave them with useless limbs, slurredspeech and other serious disabilities. One in five stroke survivors goes on tohave a second, often fatal, stroke within five years of the first.
An international six-year study of 6,100 patients directed fromSydney University found that by taking two blood pressure-lowering drugs, therisk of secondary strokes can be reduced by up to 40 per cent. Even taking oneof the com#monly available drugs can cut the risk by a third, the study said.The drugs are the diuretic indapamide and the ACE inhibitor1 perindopril,better known by its brand name Coversyl. The com#bination was effective even inpatients who did not have high blood pressure, the researchers said. They evenfound that the risk of another stroke could be cut by three quarters among theone-in-ten patients who had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage, the worst type ofstroke, where there is direct bleeding into the brain.
Stephen McMahon, who presented the research at the Milan congress ofthe European Society of Hypertension, said about 50 million people were alivewho had suffered at least one stroke. “If most of those patients were able toget access to2 this treatment, it would result in3 maybe the avoidance of halfa million strokes a year,” the professor told Australia’s ABC Radio.
McMahon said doctors had long known that lowering the blood pressureof those with hypertension could help prevent strokes.” What we have shown forthe first time is that it does not really matter what your blood pressure is4;if you havehad a stroke, then lowering blood pressure will produce large benefits, tobegin with5—even for people whose blood pressure is average or below average,”he said.
McMahon said the Milan gathering had heralded the research as a “majorbreakthrough in the care of patients with strokes — perhaps thebiggest step forward that we have made in the last couple of decades”.