2017年GMAT考试备考技巧详解

标签:2017GMAT考试备考技巧详解发布时间:2017/6/26 21:23:00

谈到GMAT考试,很多考生可能对verbal部分的语法(sentence correction)环节表示很纠结:对于中学所学语法知识的遗忘、做题正确率的低下、题意晦涩选项太长导致做题速度过慢……各种各样问题使得考生视SC为大敌,久久找不到突破点。其实,静下心来详细分析GMAT考试的目的与本质,想一想美国人通过GMAT到底要考大家什么,我们将会发现SC环节中的规律性。小编将在这篇文章中带领大家从sentence correction环节找寻其考点规律。

国内,很多考生将sentence correction环节定义为语法,而小编认为这一定义并不确切,因为SC题目中除了对语法进行考核之外,还会对标准书面英语,也就是所谓的文法有所要求。接下来,小编将从语法和文法两个角度分析该环节的考核规律。

1)语法的准确性

一般来说,GMAT SC环节对于语法知识的考核会从主谓一致(agreement), 比较结构(comparison), 平行结构(parallelism), 代词指代(pronoun), 动词(verb), 以及修饰(modifier)等等几大语法点对大家进行考察,这也就要求大家在对该环节进行准备前,首先应当对所学过的语法概念做出系统性巩固,从上述若干考点查漏补缺,巩固语法基本功。但是值得注意的是,由于GMAT对于语言的考核是立足于formal written standard English, 所以大家在准备时,还应特别留意一些GMAT做出的特殊要求。下列若干句子在传统语法书甚至国内中高考等大型考试都被认为是正确的句子,但从GMAT要求来分析是存在语法错误的。例如:

a.He will come to attend the conference, which is a good news for us.

国内较为权威的语法书籍例如张道真语法和薄冰语法对于非限定性定语从句中关系代词which既可用来指代前面整句也可以具体指代句中某一成分。而从GMAT角度分析为避免理解歧义,which只能指代句中某一成分,而不能指代整句;因此,在该例句中,which用来指代”he will come to attend the conference”, 该句错误。

因此:在下列这道题目中,我们可以根据该原则排除掉ACE三个选项,因为从ACE三选项中的谓语动词单三形式doubles可以得知关系代词which在该题中指代 “The cameras of the spacecraft detected six small, previously unseen moons circling Uranus” 这一整句话,这就为我们做题无论从速度和正确率上会有很大提高作用。

The cameras of the spacecraft detected six small, previously unseen moons circling Uranus, which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting the distant planet.

A which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting

B doubling to twelve the number of satellites now known to orbit

C which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known in orbit around

D doubling to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting

E which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known that orbit

b. He said he wanted to go home.

传统语法规定,宾从连接连词that一般情况下均可省略,但是GMAT考试明确,名词性从句连接连词不得省略。

因此:在下面这道题目中,B选项由于谓动order后直接接了宾从而缺失了连接连词that,可以排除掉该选项

The newly passed bills order that the state tax revenue be cut each year.

A. order that the state tax revenue be cut

B. order the state tax revenue be cut

C. order that the state tax revenue will be cut

D. have an order for a cut state revenue

E. have an order to cut the state revenue

类似这样的GMAT特有语法规定还有很多,例如this不得单独使用,虚拟语气名词性从句中谓动不得加should等等,这些看似条条框框的规定实际上更多的为我们提供的是一种规律,也就是说在众多选项中,总有那么几个标志性的规律性的词眼在帮助我们排除若干选项。所以,对于语法知识的掌握,既要立足于巩固语法基本功,又要系统性的总结GMAT特有规定。

但是,大家在实际操作时可能往往会发现,当利用选项中的语法错误排除之后往往会有两三个选项貌似没有任何语法问题,那么这个时候怎么办呢?小编接下来将浅谈该环节对于文法的考察。

2)文法的有效性

“有效性”实际上是一个比较宽泛的概念,GMAT SC秉行一句格言 “没有完美的,只有更好的”。在抓住语法错误进行排除之后,有时往往会留下两个左右语法看似完全正确的句子,这时我们就需要分析剩下选项中哪一个表达意思和原题意思最贴切,哪个选项表达更加简洁,以及哪个选项中逻辑最为清晰;总之在有效性的基础上进行选择。

例如

Last spring a Colorado health department survey of 72 playgrounds in private child-care centers found unsafe conditions in 95 percent of them and they ranged from splinters to equipment near collapse.

A. unsafe conditions in 95 percent of them and they ranged

B. conditions in 95 percent were unsafe and ranging

C. the ranging of unsafe conditions in 95 percent of them to be

D. that 95 percent had unsafe conditions ranging

E. that 95 percent had conditions that were unsafe; the range was

在该题目当中的D和E两个选项中,由于D中的 “unsafe conditions” 表达上等同于E选项中 “conditions that were unsafe”, 以及D中的 “ranging”分词做定语修饰 conditions简洁于E中分号隔开的并列句,所以在DE语法正确的情况下我们优先选择D选项。

再例如:

As the price of gasoline rises, which makes substituting alcohol distilled from cereal grain attractive, the prices of bread and livestock feed are sure to increase.

A. which makes substituting alcohol distilled from cereal grain attractive

B. which makes substituting the distillation of alcohol from cereal grain attractive

C. which makes distilling alcohol from cereal grain an attractive substitute

D. making an attractive substitution of alcohol distilled from cereal grain

E. making alcohol distilled from cereal grain an attractive substitute

在该题目中,利用之前讲过的which不得指代前面整句排除掉ABC三个选项的之后,我们对比DE两个选项,我们不难发现D中表达的结构是making substitution distilled (make something done/使某事被做),不但表达意思和原题意思区别较大,而且混淆了名词“substitute” 和 “substitution”间的区别,所以我们可以直接排除D而选择E选项

免责声明:本文仅代表作者个人观点,与本网无关。
Ctrl+D

按Ctrl+D键将文章加入收藏夹

下次需要直接打开+收藏