2016年全国公共英语三级语法解析

标签:2016年全国公共英语三级语法解析发布时间:2016/6/22 8:51:00

下面是小编整理的公共英语三级常见语法解析,提供给各位考生复习备考。

第一节 动词的时态

一、一般现在时:

1、由when、as soon as、the minute、the moment、till、until等引起的时间状语从句,以及由if、unless、provided that等引起的条件状语从句常常用一般现在时态表示将来的动作,而主句则用一般将来时态。

例:They will go home for winter vocation as soon as they finish their exams.

2、当表示普遍的真理或者众所周知的客观事实,常常用一般现在时态。例:The earth is round. 地球是圆的。

二、一般过去时:区分三个短语的用法:

1、used to do sth:过去常常做某事。

2、be/get used to doing sth:习惯做某事。

3、be used to do sth:被用于做某事。

三、一般将来时:

1、be to+动词原形:表示安排或计划好了的动作。例:The Third-Ring Road is to be open to traffic before National Day.

2、be about to+动词原形:表示即将发生的动作。例:The lecture is about to begin.讲座即将开始。

3、一些表示动作趋势,如开始、终结,以及一些表示动作方向,如往来的动词,常常用现在进行时态表示按照安排将于将来发生的事情,这类动词常见的有如:start,go,leave,com#e,arrive等。例:We are leaving for Beijing tomorrow. 我们明天动身去北京。

四、进行时态:

重点区分when和while引起的时间状语的用法。

When表示时间上的点,在考试中其引导的时间状语从句多翻译为“这时?”,主句多用进行时态;while引导的时间状语从句多翻译为“正当……时”,该从句用进行时态。 例:One of the guards was sleeping when the general came in, which made him very angry.

I fell and hurt myself while I was playing tennis.

五、现在完成时:

重点区分have (has) been to:某人去过某地,表示一种经历,强调状态,可以和once,twice,often,never,ever连用;

Have (has) gone to:某人在去某地的途中或已在某地,强调动作。此句型不能与上述时间状语连用。例:He has gone to America.他已经去了美国。He has been to America twice.他去过美国两次。

六、过去完成时:

1、强调一个动作发生在另外一个过去的动作之前时,用过去完成时。

2、It was the first/second/last time that? 在该句型,that从句用过去完成时态。

七、将来完成时:

常常标志性地由by、by the time、by the end of引起一个表示将来时间段的时间状语,主句用将来完成时态。

第二节 感官动词、使役动词的用法及英语中常考的两个句式结构

一、感官动词的用法及其被动语态:在英语中,常见的感官动词有“五看二听一感觉”(see、watch、look、notice、observe;hear、listen to、feel),在主动语态中用动词原形或现在分词作宾补,如see sb do/doing sth,改为被动语态时则要加to,如sb be seen to do sth.

二、使役动词的用法及其被动语态:在英语中,常见的使役动词有make、let、have,在主动语态中用动词原形做宾补,如make sb do sth,改为被动语态时则要加to,如sb be made to do sth, 两种形式都表示使/让某人做某事的意思。例:We were made to study hardy.我们被要求努力学习。

三、英语中常考的句式结构一:sth need/ want/ require doing 某物需要?(=sth need/want/require to be done)(此句式主语为物)例:My room is a mess. It needs tidying up(整理)。

四、英语中常考的句式结构二:have/get sth done 请/让别人做某事(have/get后接宾语为物)

例:I have taken many photos. I‘m going to get the filmdeveloped. 五、情态动词的被动语态,其构成为:情态动词+be+过去动词。例:The work must be finished before lunch. 这项工作必须在午饭前干完。

第三节 情态动词

常见的情态动词有can、could;may、might;must、need;should;ought to,对于情态动词常考其两方面的内容,一是情态动词用于推测句型,二是情态动词用于虚拟语气(该部分的讲解放在虚拟语气)

一、情态动词用于对现在内容推测的常见句型有:

1、Can/may do sth:表示对现在内容的可能性的推测;

2、Must do sth:表示对现在内容的肯定性的推测。

二、情态动词用于对过去内容推荐的常见句型:

1、can/may have done sth:表示对过去内容的可能性;

2、must have done sth:表示对过去内容的肯定性的推测。

例:1、Mr Green must have failed to receive my letter, otherwise he would have replied.

2、I believe he must have had an accident, otherwise he would have arrived on time.

一、虚拟语气的基本内容

根据虚拟与其这种与事实相反的假设所对应的时间不同,虚拟语气的if虚拟条件从句与主句的谓语动词分别有三类构成形式:

假设类型If虚拟条件从句

主句与现在事实相反 Did/were Would/should do 与过去事实相反 Had done Would/should have done 与将来事实可能相反 Were to do/did/should do Would/should do

例:1、I wouldn't talk that way if I were Peter.

2、If the whole operation had not been planned before hand, a great deal of time and money

would have been lost

3、Jean doesn't want to work right away because she thinks that if she were to get a job she probably wouldn’t be able to see her friends very often.

4、I would ask George to lend us the money if I knew him.

5、Do you think there would be less conflict (战斗、斗争) in the world if all people spoke the same language.

6、If Bob had com#e with us, he would have had a good time.

二、if的省略形式(又称虚拟语气的倒装结构)

在if虚拟条件从句中,如果谓语部分包含were,should,had等词,则可以把这些词放到主语前,省略if,构成虚拟语气的倒装结构。

三、主句与从句时间不一致时虚拟语气的构成

当虚拟语气的if虚拟条件从句和主句的动作发生的时间不一致时,要根据各自表示的时间采用对应的虚拟语气的构成形式。

例:1、If I had attended the meeting yesterday, I would know what happened now.

2、If you had taken our advice at that time, you would not be in trouble now.

四、主观倾向性动词引导的虚拟语气的构成

在英语中存在一些动词,表示建议、命令、要求等主观的倾向,由这些动词引导的that宾语从句中,从句的谓语动词要用should+动词原形,should可以省略。这类常见的主观倾向性动词有“一坚持、二命令、三建议、五要求”,分别是:

一坚持:insist 二命令:order、com#mand 三建议:suggest、advise(n advice)、propose(提议、建议) 五要求:ask、demand、require、request、desire

例:1、The doctor advised that Mr. Malan have an operation right away so as to save his life.

2、His mother insisted that he put on the coat when going out. 同时,如果在题干中出现上面这些主观倾向性动词的名词和形容词形式,题干中从句部分的谓语动词也要用should+动词原形,should可以省略。考试中常见的词汇有:order,com#mand,suggestion,advice,proposal,demand,request,desire,advisable,desirable.

五、wish that和if only引导的虚拟语气的构成

Wish that引导的宾语从句和if only引起的感叹句都用虚拟语气来表示一种没有实现或无法实现的愿望,其中wish that句型往往翻译为:多么希望?;if only表示的愿望较wish that更强烈,常翻译为但愿;要是?就好了。两者的用法基本相同。两者的用法是:1、当表示与现在的事实相反的一种愿望时,wish that引导的宾语从句和if only引起的感叹句中谓语动词采用的形式是:did/were;

2、当表示与过去的事实相反的一种愿望时,wish that引导的宾语从句和if only引起的感叹句中谓语动词采用的形式是:had done;

3、当表示未来一时很难实现的一种愿望时,wish that引导的宾语从句和if only引起的感叹句中谓语动词采用的形式是:would do.

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