Cigarette smoking is believed by most research workers in this field to be an important factor in the development of cancer of the lungs and the throat and is believed to be __1_to cancer of the bladder(膀胱)and the oral cavity.Male cigarette smokers have a higher death __2 _from heart disease than non-smoking males.
Female smokers are thought to be less affected they do not __3_in the smoke so deeply.The majority of physicians and researchers consider these relationships proved to their satisfaction and say.“Give up smoking,if you don’t smoke,don’t start.”Some __4_physicians and research workers---though their small number in dwindling even further---are less sure of the effect of cigarette smoking on health.They consider the increase in respiratory(呼吸的)diseases and __5_forms of cancer may possibly be explained by other factors in the __6_human environment---atmospheric pollution,increased nervous stress,chemical__7_in processed food,or chemical pesticides that are now being used by farmers in vast quantities to destroy insects and small animals.Smokers who develop cancer or lung diseases,they say,may also,by coincidence,live in industrial areas,or eat more canned food.Gradually,however,research is __8_all other possible factors and proving them to be statistically irrelevant.While all tobacco smoking affects life expectancy and health,cigarette smoking appears to have a much greater__9_than cigar or pipe smoking.However,nicotine consumption is not diminished by the latter forms,and current research indicates relationship between all forms of smoking and cancer of the mouth and throat.Filters low tar tobacco are claimed to made smoking to some extent safer,but they can only marginally reduce,not __10_.the hazards.
答案：1.K 2.F 3.O 4.H 5.A 6.M 7.D 8.B 9.E 10.J
Clinton Is Right
President Clinton’s decision on Apr.8 to send Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji packing without an agreement on China’s entry into the World Trade Organization seemed to be a massive miscalculation. The President took a drubbing from much of the press, which had breathlessly reported that a deal was in the bag. The Cabinet and Whit House still appeared divided, and business leaders were characterized as furious over the lost opportunity. Zhu charged that Clinton lacked ―the courage to reach an accord. And when Clinton later telephoned the angry Zhu to pledge a renewed effort at negotiations, the gesture was widely portrayed as a flip-flop.
In fact, Clinton made the right decision in holding out for a better WTO deal. A lot more horse trading is needed before a final agreement can be reached. And without the Administration‘s goal of a-bullet-proof agreement that business lobbyists can enthusiastically sell to a Republican Congress, the whole process will end up in partisan acrimony that could harm relations with China for years.
THE HARD PART. Many business lobbyists, while disappointed that the deal was not closed, agree that better terms can still be had. And Treasury Secretary Robert E. Rubin, National Economic Council Director Gene B. Sperling, Commerce Secretary William M. Daley, and top trade negotiator Charlene Barshefsky all advised Clinton that while the Chinese had made a remarkable number of concessions, ―we‘re not there yet, according to senior officials.
Negotiating with Zhu over the remaining issues may be the easy part. Although Clinton can signal U.S. approval for China‘s entry into the WTO himself, he needs Congress to grant Beijing permanent most-favored-nation status as part of a broad trade accord. And the temptation for meddling on Capital Hill may prove overwhelming. Zhu had barely landed before Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott (R-Miss) declared himself skeptical that China deserved entry into the WTO. And Senators Jesse A. Helms (R-N.C.) and Emest F. Hollings (D-S. C.) promised to introduce a bill requiring congressional approval of any deal.
The hidden message from these three textile-state Southerners: Get more protection for the U. S. clothing industry. Hoping to smooth the way, the Administration tried, but failed, to budge Zhu on textiles. Also left in the lurch: Wall Street, Hollywood, and Detroit. Zhu refused to open up much of the lucrative Chinese securities market and insisted on ―cultural‖ restrictions on American movies and music. He also blocked efforts to allow U. S. auto makers to provide fleet financing.
BIG JOB. Already, business lobbyists are blanketing Capitol Hill to pres-ale any eventual agreement, but what they’ve heard so far isn’t encouraging. Republicans, including Lott, say that ―the time just isn’t right for the deal. Translation: We‘re determined to make it look as if Clinton has capitulated to the Chinese and is ignoring human, religious, and labor rights violations; the theft of nuclear-weapons technology; and the sale of missile parts to America‘s enemies. Beijing‘s fierce critics within the Democratic Party, such as Senator Paul D. Wellstone of Minnesota and House Minority leader Richard A. Gephardt of Missouri, won‘t help, either.
Just how tough the lobbying job on Capitol Hill will be become clear on Apr. 20, when Rubin lectured 19chief executives on the need to discipline their Republican allies. With business and the White House still trading charges over who is responsible for the defeat of fast-track trade negotiating legislation in 1997, working together won‘t be easy. And Republicans—with a wink—say that they‘ll eventually embrace China‘s entry into the WTO as a favor to Corporate America. Though not long before they torture Clinton. But Zhu is out on a limb, and if Congress overdoes the criticism, he may be forced by domestic critics to renege. Business must make this much dear to both its GOP allies and the Whit House: This historic deal is too important to risk losing to any more partisan squabbling.
1. The main idea of this passage is
[A]. The Contradiction between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.
[B]. On China‘s entry into WTO.
[C]. Clinton was right.
[D]. Business Lobbyists Control Capitol Hill.
2. What does the sentence—Also left in the lurch: Wall Street, Hollywood,Detroit convey?
[A]. Premier Zhu rejected their requirements.
[B]. The three places overdid criticism.
[C]. They wanted more protection.
[D]. They are in trouble.
3. What was the attitude of the Republican Party toward China‘s entry into the WTO?
4. Who plays the leading part in the deal in America?
[A]. White House .
[C]. The Democratic Party.
5. It can be inferred from the passage that
[A]. America will make concessions.
[B]. America will hold out for a better WTO
[C]. Clinton has the right to signal U. S. approval for China‘s entry.
[D]. Democratic party approve China‘s entry into the WTO.
答案：C A A D A
- 2014年12月20日大学英语四级考试真题Section B长篇阅读原文