八年级英语上册Unit 5语法知识点及练习题(新版新目标)

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Unit 5

课前复习:

dress装扮,乔装打扮 take sb's place

plan sth打算做某事 go on

hope sth希望做某事 have a discussion 对……进行讨论

expect sth.希望做某事 learn a lot 从…….学到/了解许多

in the二十世纪30年代 see sb. sth.看着某人在做某事

try one's bestcome 出版,发行

mind sth 介意做某事 can’t stand sth 不能忍受做某事

sth happen sb 某人出了某事 find 查明 、弄清楚

be famous 因什么而出名 Be famous 作为什么而出名

不定式的用法

一、动词不定式

(一) 定义:动词不定式是一种活跃的非谓语动词它的形式是“to十动词原形”,但to有时也可以省略。现在就让我们一起来看一下动词不定式的形式和用法

我们学过的能直接跟带to的不定式结构作宾语或宾补的动词主要有:want, learn, try, decide, forget , remember, like, love,stop等。如: I want to see a film我想去看电影

They decided to take; a long vacation in Paris. 他们决定去巴黎度长假

动词不定式的否定形式是在不定式前直接加not,即not to do sth.。如:

Jim told me not to wake np Kate.吉姆告诉我别叫醒凯特

【练习一】选择

( )1. “What are you going to do this weekend?” “I’d likemy parents.”

A. to visit B. visit C. visiting D.visited

( )2. — What’s your plan for the summer holidays?— I’ve no idea, but I’ve decided at home.

A. stay B. to stay C. stayed D. staying

( )3. Last week our geography teacher told us more information about how to protect the environment. A. get B. got C. to get D. getting

( )4. Our headmaster asked us a report on how to protect wild animals.

A. write B. writing C. to write D. wrote

( )5. — How do you feel when you watch the national flag go up?

—It makes mevery proud.

A. felt B. to feel C. feeling D. feel

( )6. ---Please tell the boys --_______any noise. My baby is sleeping.---OK. I'll do it at once.

A. not make B.to make C. not to make

(二)用作主语

直接把动词不定式置于句首的情况不多,多数情况用it作形式主语,把真正的主语——动词不定式置于句末,特别是不定式短语较长时(有时在不定式的前面还会用for sb.表示不定式的逻辑主语)。动词不定式作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。带疑问词的不定式短语作主语常置于句首,复合不定式结构作主语常置于句末。如:

1、把不定式置于句首。如:

To get there by bike will take us half an hour.

2、用it作形式主语,把真正的主语不定式置于句后,常用于下列句式中。如:

①It+be+名词+to do

It's our duty to take good care of the old.

②It takes sb + some time +to do

How long did it take you to finish the work?

③It+be+形容词+for sb+to do 逻辑主语

It is difficult for us to finish writing the composition a quarter of an hour.

④It+be+形容词+of sb+to do

“It is stupid of you to write down everything”, the teacher says.

注意:(1)当上面的形容词指的是to do sth的性质时,用介词for。

It’s dangerous for children to swim in the river. 孩子在这条河里游泳很危险。(游泳这件事情危险)

(2)当上面的形容词指的是sb的性质时,用介词of。这些形容词往往修饰人:good, bad, polite, unkind, kind, nice, clever, right, wrong, careful, careless

It was careless of you to do that. 你这么做真粗心。(你这个人粗心)

⑤It seems(appears)+形容词+to do

It seemed impossible to save money.

3、带疑问词的不定式短语作主语

How to solve the problem is hard for him.

【练习二】动词不定式作主语

( )1. It's our duty _________ the room every day.

A. to clean B. cleaned C. clean D. cleans

( )2. It's hard for us _________ English well.

A. learn B. learns C. to learn D. learning

( )3. It's very nice _________ you to get me two tickets _________ the World Cup.

A. or;of B. of; for C. to;for D. of;to

4.建造这座桥将花费工人们一年多的时间。

It will _________ the workers over a year _________ _________ the bridge.

(三)用作表语

动词不定式作表语,常说明主语的内容、性质、特征,通常放在连系动词(主要是be动词)后。如:

1.The best way to improve your English is to join an English club.

2.The first thing is to greet the teacher.

(四)用动词不定式作宾语的动词与结构。

1.可以接带to的动词不定式作宾语的动词主要有:要求、选择、同意(ask, choose, agree),期望、决定、学习(expect, hope, decide, learn),宁可、假装、知道(prefer, pretend, know),希望、想要、愿意(wish, want, would like / love)。如:

1)We decided to talk to some students about why they go there.

2)He prefers to eat white bread and rice.

3)I’d love to visit Mexico

2.动词feel, find, make, think等后面,可以用it作形式宾语代替真正的宾语——动词不定式,句子结构是...feel / find / make / ... it+adj. / n.+to do...。如:

I find it difficult to remember everything.

3.既可接动词不定式又可接v.ing形式作宾语,意思差别不太大的动词有begin, start, like, love等。一般说来,动词不定式表一次、数次的具体动作、将来动作或动作的全过程,ving形式表习惯性的连续动作。但是这种区别并不很严格,特别是美国英语,即使是习惯性的动作也可以用动词不定式。如:

1)Then I started to watch English-language TV.

2)I’m beginning to understand my Chinese roots, and who I am.

begin用了进行时态,后面只接不定式作宾语,表示事情刚开始,还要继续下去。

3)I like to eat vegetables.

感知动词like, love, know等一般不用进行时态。

4.后接动词不定式或ving形式作宾语,意思差别较大的动词有forget, remember等。后接不定式作宾语,表动作尚未发生;后接ving形式作宾语,表动作已经发生。stop to do停下来做另外一件事,to do是目的状语;stop doing停止做、不做当前这件事,doing是宾语。try to do尽力做,try doing试试看;go on to do接着做另外的事,go on doing继续做原来的事。如:

1)When I left home, I had forgotten to bring it with me.

2)I stopped using them last year.

及物动词+不定式一般形式:

谓语动词(vt.)+不定式

(作宾语)[说 明]

want(想) / try(试图) / decide(决定) / would like(想要) / hope(希望) / love(喜爱) / learn(学会) / afford(提供) / agree(同意) / fail(失败、未能) / mean(意味着) / prefer(宁愿) / wish(希望) + to (do)(无)

help(帮助)to可以省略

begin(开始)/ start(开始)/hate(憎恨) 也可跟动名词,意义变化不大

forget(忘记) / remember(记得)/ like(总爱) 也可跟动名词,意义变化较大

(五)用作补语

1,带to的动词不定式作补语的动词主要有:要求、允许、提议(ask, allow, permit, advise),期望、邀请、鼓励(expect, suppose, invite, encourage),教导、告诉、想要(teach, tell, want),等待、希望、愿意(wait for, wish, would like / love)。如:

1) I’d invite her to have dinner at my house.

2) Teenagers should be allowed to choose their own clothes.

3) Email English is supposed to be used on mobile phones.

2,感官动词和使役动词,省to不定式,包括四“看”:look at, observe, see, watch,三“让”:have, let, make,二“听”:hear, listen to,一“感觉”:feel,一“注意”:notice。如:

1)This picture makes me feel tense!

2)Of course we want to see Liu Yu achieve his dreams.

3.help后接动词不定式作补语,to可带可不带。一般说来,带to表间接帮助,不带to表直接帮助。

总结:

谓 语 动 词(vt.)+ 宾语 (人 / 物)+不定式 (作宾语补足语)

ask(请) / tell(关照) / teach(教) / want(想要) / would like(想要) / get(让) / invite(邀请) / like(喜欢) / warn(警告) / help(帮) /+sb. / sth.+to (do)

make(使得) / let(让) / hear(听) / see(看) / feel(感觉) / watch(观看)/ have(使得) / help(帮助) +sb. / sth.+ (do)

注意:hear / see / feel / watch之后的宾补用不定式与现在分词时,含义不同,

试比较:

I heard her crying when I walked past.(我路过时听到她正在哭)(指当时瞬间的情况)

I sat near her and heard her sing the new song.(我坐在她附近听她唱新歌)(指整个过程)

【练习三】

(一)动词不定式作宾语

( )1. He wants ______ some vegetables.

A. buy B. buying C. to buy D. buys

( )2. Don't forget ______ your homework with you when you come to school.

A. to bring B. bringing C. to take D. taking

( )3. He found it very difficult ______.

A. sleeping B. sleeps C. slept D. to fall asleep

(二)动词不定式作宾语补足语

( )1. Robert often asks us ______ his Chinese, so his Chinese is much better than before.

A. help him B. to help him with C. to help with D. helps him with

( )2. Mr Li often teaches his Japanese friends ______ Chinese food.

A. cook B. cooks C. to cook D. cooked

(六)作定语:(注:动词不定式(短语)作定语总是后置。) 此时,如果动词不定式的动词为不及物动词,后面的介词绝对不能省略。

动词分“及物”和“不及物”。及物的动词”就是“涉及事物的动词”即“有受对象的动词”或“带宾语的动词”(像买buy,花费spend),“不及物的动词”就是“不带宾语的动词”“没有动作承受对象的动词”(像跑run,跳jump,)。 所以介词不能够省略。

作定语时,不定式与其所修饰的名词、代词等存在逻辑的动宾关系。

E.g. ①The next train to arrive is from Washington.

②Do you have anything to say on the question?

③Would you please give me some paper to write on?

1、记住下面的一些结构:

被修饰部分 + 不定式

(作后置定语)汉 语 意 思

a keyto lock the door锁门的钥匙

a boxto hold these things装这些东西的箱子

give her a bookto read给她一本书读

Is there any

(+名词/代词)to (do)?有…要(做的)吗?

It’s timeto go.是走的时间了。

Do you have any workto do?你有工作要做吗?

I’d like somethingto eat.我要点儿吃的。

I have nothingto say.我没有话要说。

Would you like somethingto drink?你要点儿喝的吗?

2、在这种情况下,如果不定式动词是不及物动词,则后面必须加介词。如:

They could not find a place to live in.(他们找不到住的地方)

Please give me a chair to sit on.(请给我一张椅子坐坐)

He has got a writing brush to write with.((他找到了写字的毛笔)

(七)带疑问词的不定式短语

动词不定式前面可以带疑问代词what, which, who或疑问副词how, when, where, why等。这种结构起名词的作用,在句子里用作宾语、主语、表语等,或者单独使用。要注意的是,why后面的不定式不带to。如:

1.用作句子的成分。

1)I don’t know what to try next. (作宾语)

2)Where to go is not decided yet.(作主语)

2.单独使用时相当于一个特殊疑问句。

1)What to do next?(=What will we / you do next?)

2)Why go there?(=Why do we / you go there?)

及物动词+疑问词+不定式:

谓语动词(vt.)+wh-疑问词+不定式 (作宾语)[说明]

tell (告诉) / show (显示) / know (知道) / ask (问) / find out (发现) / understand (明白) / wonder(疑惑) / learn(学会) / forget(忘记) / remember(记得) / teach sb.(教某人) / discuss(商讨)what

where

+ how + to (do)

who

which

……不定式疑问形式还可以作句子的主语、表语等。

一、单项选择(共80分,每小题2分)

1. The teacher told them make so much noise.

A. don’t B. not C. will not D. not to

2. Our master often told us _______ things for granted.

A. not to have B. not to take C. didn’t take D. not to make

3. Tell him _____ __ the window.

A. to break not B. not to break C. to not break D. not break

4. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him .

A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to

5. The boy was told _____ __ so much computer games.

A. to play not B. playing not C. not to play D. not playing

6. The workers want us ____ ____ together with them.

A. work B. working C. to work D. worked

7. I saw him ______ _ out of the room.

A. go B. had gone C. has gone D. goes

8. I’ve heard him _____ __ about you often.

A. spoke B. speaks C. speak D. speaking

9. There isn’t any difference between the two coat. I really don’t know _________.

A. where to choose B. which to choose C. to choose what D. to choose which

11. ---“ Have you decided when ____ ____?” ---“ Yes, tomorrow morning.”

A. to leave B. to be leaving C. will you leave D. are you leaving

12. Last summer, I took part in a club on _____ ___.

A. how to play tennis B. how play tennis C. how to be played D. how tennis to be played

13. --- The light in the office is still on. --- Oh, I forgot ___ ____.

A. turning off it B. turn it off

C. to turn it off D. having turned off it

14. I would love _____ _ to the party last night but I had to work

two hours to finish a report.

A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone

15. Go on ________ the other exercise after you have finished this one.

A. to do B. doing C. with D. to be doing

16. She reached the top of the hill and stopped _______ under the big tree.

A. rested B. resting C. to have a rest D. rest

17. I need a day or two ________ the work.

A. to finish B. finishing C. for finish D. finish

18. He was too excited _______ __.

A. speak B. to speak C. not to speak D. speaking

19. It’s snowy outside. You _____ __ put on your overcoat.

A. had better to B. had better C. would better D. would better to

20. I’m hungry. Give me something ______ ___.

A. eat B. to eat C. eating D. for eating

21. --- I usually go there by train.

Why not _____ __ there by boat for a change?

A. to try going B. trying to go C. try to go D. try going

22. We were all excited ____ ___ the football match between China and Japan.

A. watch B. watching C. to watch D. watched

23. I’m sorry. I forgot ____ __ your dictionary. Let’s borrow one from Li Ming.

A. to take B. taking C. to bring D. bringing

24. I prefer ___ _ rather than ____ __.

A. read; watch B. to read; watch C. reading; to watch D. to read; to watch

25. I am going to the library ___ ___ the books.

A. return B. borrow C. to return D. to lend

26. It took us more than two hours ___ ___ the dinner.

A. cook B. cooking C. to cook D. cooked

27. We went to town ______ ___ some shopping.

A. doing B. did C. to make D. to do

28. After the final exam, I think all the students want _______ __.

A. stop to have a rest B. to stop having a rest C. to stop to have a rest D. stopping to have a rest

29. It is very kind you to help me with my housework. It is hard me to do all the work.

A. of, for B. for, of C. of, to D. to, for

30. Many people think it very difficult _____ __ English.

A. to say B. to learn C. speak D. for telling

31. Remember ____ __ the book here tomorrow.

A. bring B. to bring C. take D. to take

32. ---Let’s have a rest, shall we ?

--Not now. I don’t want to stop _____ __ the letter yet.

A. write B. to write C. writing D. and write

33. ---This maths problem is too difficult. Can you show me __________, Wang Lin?

A. what to work it out B. what to work out it C. how to work it out D. how to work out it

34. with him is to talk with the wall.

A. talking B. talk C. talked D. to talk

35. My brother’s dream is an excellent basketball player.

A. been B. being C. to be D. become

36. Would you like out or would you rather stay here ?

A. going B. go C. went D. to go

37. The poor man has no house .

A. to live in B. to live C. live D. living

38. I went to the cinema the latest film.

A. see B. saw C. seeing D. to see

39. He ran so fast in order the first bus.

A. to catch B. catching C. catched D. caught

40. I come here only good-bye to you.

A. to say B.saying C. say D. said

III.综合训练

一、选择。

1. Remember _________the letter to me ..

A. sending B. sends C. to send D. send

2. English is important to us . We should try _______ it hard.

A. study B. studies C. studies D. to study

3. Keep ___________hard , and I think you’ll succeed someday.

A. to study B. studying C. studies D. studys

4. You look tired. You’d better stop_________ a rest.

A. have B. has C. having D. to have

5. There’s so much delicious food! I can’t decided________.

.A . what t eat B. when to eat C. how to eat D. where to eat .

6. Remember ________ me when you come to Shouguang.

A. to see B. see C. seeing D. saw

7. I would like _________ with you forever.

.A to stay B. stays C. stay D. stayed.

8. They start _________an English article for the newspaper.

A. writes B. writing C. write D. writed

9. My father wants __________ around the world because he enjoys _____ new places.

A. traveling , seeing B. to travel, to see .C . traveling , to see D. to travel, seeing

10. Can you tell me ________ on the Internet?

A. how to search B. how search C. where can I search D. when can I search

11-----."________do you_________sitcoms?" ---"I love them."

A.How, think of B.What, like of C. What, think of D.What, like

12.My mother wants me ________.

A.help her B.not help her C.not to watch TV D.to not watch TV

13.Mickey is one of _________ in the world.

A.famousest cartoon character B.the most famous cartoon characters

B. famousest cartoon characters D. the most famous cartoon character

14. I don’t like action movies. I think they’re ________.

A.boring B.difficult C.interesting D.exciting

15. He even ________ a Beijing Opera artist.

A.want to be B.wants to be C.want is D.is want

16.I don’t mind what _________.

A .do you think of me B .do you think of me C. you think of me D. you like of me

17.I don’t mind _____ the window. .It’s too cold.

A, close B. closing C. to close D. closes

18. .He looks rich. ______, he is very poor.

A. But B. However C. While D.Yet

19.She expect ______ the film Tiny Times directed by Guo Jingming.

A. see B. to see C. seeing D. to seeing

20.Pleasant Goat and Big Big Wolf is _____.

A .serous B. meaningless C. enjoyable D. simple

二、完成句子。

1.那个姑娘决定自己做那件事。

The girl _______ _______ ______it herself.

2.我们希望天黑以前到那儿。

We _____ ______ _______ there before dark.

3. 老师要我们做练习(一)。

The teacher _________ us _____ _____ Exercise 1.

4.我们正在想着如何打扫我们的新家

We’re thinking about ______ ______ ______ our new house.

5.我们需要讨论去哪吃晚饭

We need to discuss ______ ________ _______ ________.

三、完型填空。

The students were having their chemistry(化学)class. Miss Li was telling the children 16 water was like. After that, she asked her students, “What's water?" 17 spoke for a few minutes. Miss Li asked again, "Why don't you answer my question? Didn't you 18 me carefully just now?" Just then a boy 19 his hand and said, “Miss Li, you tell us that water has no color and no smell. But where to 20 such kind of water? The water in the river behind my house is always black and it has a 21 smell.” Most of the children agreed 22 him. The boy went on saying: “My family and neighbors are 23 about the water. We wonder when and how we can stop the factories from 24 the river. “I’m sorry, children.” said the teacher, “Our water is getting 25 . That is what we should talk about next. ”

( )16. A. what B. how C. why

( )17. A. No one B. Everyone C. Someone

( )18. A. watch B. hear C. listen to

( )19. A. put on B. put up C. put out

( )20. A. find out B. find for C. find

( )21. A. good B. bad C. sweet

( )22. A. with B. to C. on

( )23. A. talking B. thinking C. worried

( )24. A. saving B. helping C. polluting

( )25. A. cleaner and cleaner B. dirtier and dirtier C. better and better

四、阅读理解。

(A)

2.26-meter-tall Yao Ming made his NBA debut (初次登台) on October 23, 2002 and got 6 points for the Houston Rockets in the game. The next day, he got 13 points (得分)in another game.

Most people think that Yao Ming is a born basketball player. But Yao said, “When you watch it on TV, it looks very easy. But when you are playing in the NBA, it is really not so easy.” He said that joining the Houston Rockets was a new start and a new challenge. “I hope that through very hard work I can make everyone happy and

help the Rockets win more games,” he said.

Yao Ming speaks some English. Both he and his teammates can undersand each other. They don't think there is a language problem. While Yao Ming faces this new challenge, the people of Houston have shown great interest in him and they hope Yan Ming faces this new challenge, the people of Houston have shown great interest in him and they hope Yan Ming will bring new energy (活力) to the Rockets. The team has started having lessons to learn more about China, and many people who work for the Rockets have learned to speak some Chinese.

( )26.Yao Ming got 13 points on October _____, 2002.

A .22 B.23 C.24 D.26

( )27.Yao Ming said that _____.

A. playing in the NBA was difficult

B. it was hard to watch NBA games on TV

C. he was an NBA star

D. it was boring to play basketball

( ) 28.The people of Houston hope Yao Ming will ______,

A. speak excellent English B. bring new energy C. make NBA games easy D. face new challenge ( ) 29.From the passage we can know that Yao Ming ________.

A. will work hard for his team

B. made the highest score in his first NBA game

C. can't understand his teammates

D. teaches the Rockets workers Chinese himself

( ) 30.The passage is probably ______.

A. an advertisement B. a notice C. a news report D . an instruction

B

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One of Guangdong's largest museums specialized(专门)in Guangdong history

of the native(本地)people.

Open:Mon.to Fri.9:00 a.m.--5:00 p.m.

Sat.&Sun.9:00 a.m.--3:00 p.m.

BAIHE SHOPPING CENTER

Tel:87872738

Add:5300 Shanghai Road

Open:Mon.to Fri.10:00 a.m.--11:00 p.m. Sun.to Sat.9:00 a.m.--10:30 p.m.FULL HOTEL

Tel:83338989

Add:368 East Huanshi Road

Breakfast:6:30 a.m.--9:00 p.m.

Lunch:11:30 a.m.--2:00 p.m.

Dinner:5:30 a.m.-- 10:00 p.m.

Coffee Shop:

Mob.to Fri.7:00 a.m.-- 10:00 p.m.

Sun.to Sat.8:00 a.m.--10:00 p.m.

根据材料内容选择最佳答案,并将其标号填入提前括号内。

( )1. If you want to go out for lunch on Sunday,you can call at ________.

A. 83386223 or 83338989 B. 87679690 or 83386223

C. 83338989 or 87872738 D. 87872738 or 876796966

( )2. If you want to buy a new dress,you can go to ________.

A. 69 Hong Kong Road B. 368 East Huanshi Road

C. 5300 Shanghai RoadD. 635 Grand Road

( )3. ________ isn't open for two and a half hours in the afternoon on weekdays.

A. Full HotelB. Hongnan Restaurant

C. History Museum D. Baihe Shopping Center

( )4. On Sunday morning,the coffee shop in Full Hotel doesn't open until ________.

A. 6:30 am B. 7:00 am C. 7:30 am D. 8:00 am

( )5. You can know ________ when you visit History Museum.

A. the history of South China B. the history of Guangdong's native people

C. the history of Shanghai D. the history of Hong Kong

看图填词练习

根据图画内容,在下面空格内填入适当的单词,使短文完整、正确,首字母已给出。

This (1) h_ _ __ on a bus. An uncle got on as soon as the bus (2) s_ _ __. I saw him tired with a bag on his back. “ Will you please (2) t_ _ __ my seat, Uncle? ” I said. The uncle replied, “ No, thanks. ” “ Please sit here, I’m very young, and you are (4) m_ _ __ older, ” I said in a (5) l _ __voice. So the man sat down. He told me to sit (6) o_ _ __ his knees. At that moment, an old grandfather in ( 7) f_ _ __of us (8) t_ _ __ around, and said to the man, “He’s a good boy. It’s good manners (行为) to give one’s (9) s_ _ __ to the old.” He (10) s_ _ __ at these words.

2

One day, Mr Black came back from a party very (1) . It was too late, and the weather was very cold. There was no bus or taxi, so he had to go home on(2) . He held his (3) under his arms.

When he got home, he opened his bag.He wanted to get his keys. They were always there. But he couldn’t find the keys this time. He was worried and he didn’t know(4) to do.When he looked up, he suddenly saw his window was (5) . Smiling to himself, Mr Black thought of an(6) .

There was a ladder behind his house.He carried it to the window.Then he began to (7)

up the ladder. How dark it was! It was (8) for him to do that, because he was very nervous and his hat fell down. So he was very careful.

A moment later he jumped into the room and he was very happy. But suddenly when he put his hand into his (9) ,

he was surprised to find his(10) just right there.

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