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2016年高考试题汇编(化学)

2016年高考试题汇编(化学)

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各学科按知识点分类汇编,包含2016年全国各地高考考试题;排版工整,图片清晰正确,试题无误,全国统一标准答案;一线名师详析真题、考点定位、名师点睛。2017年高考考生必备复习资料,人手一本,悉历年高考重难点,悉历年高考新动向,悉历年高考高频考点,让备考变得轻松而高效!

内容简介

目 录

专题一 STSE 化学与技术 化学用语··························································· 2

专题二 化学计量与化学计算···································································· 7

专题三 离子反应··················································································· 17

专题四 氧化还原反应············································································· 21

专题五 金属及其化合物·········································································· 30

专题六 非金属及其化合物······································································· 33

专题七 物质结构··················································································· 39

专题八 物质结构与推断·········································································· 45

专题九 化学反应中的能量变化································································· 48

专题十 电化学及其应用·········································································· 55

专题十一 反应速率、化学平衡································································· 64

专题十二 水溶液中的离子平衡································································· 77

专题十三 化学实验基础·········································································· 87

专题十四 无机综合与推断······································································· 95

专题十五 工艺流程················································································ 105

专题十六 化学实验设计与探究································································· 116

专题十七 有机化学结构与性质································································· 134

专题十八 有机化学合成与推断(选修)····················································· 151

专题十九 物质结构与性质(选修)··························································· 187

专题二十 化学与技术(选修)································································· 199

部分内容截取:

【2016年高考四川卷】化学与生产和生活密切相关。下列过程中没有发生化学变化的是(   )

A.氯气作水杀菌消毒剂

B.硅胶作袋装食品的干燥剂

C.二氧化硫作纸浆的漂白剂

D.肥皂水作蚊虫叮咬处的清洗剂

【答案】B

【解析】

试题分析:A、氯气和水反应生成盐酸和次氯酸,次氯酸具有强氧化性,能使蛋白质变性而杀菌消毒,发生化学变化,错误;B、硅胶作干燥剂是利用其吸水性,没有发生化学变化,正确;C、二氧化硫和有色物质化合使之生成无色物质,错误;D、肥皂水显碱性,与蚊虫叮咬处释放的酸发生中和反应,错误。

考点: 化学变化和物理变化的判断

【考点定位】考查物理变化和化学变化的判断,物质的用途

【名师点睛】本题以生活中常见物质的用途为载体考查物理变化和化学变化的判断。解答此类题目要注意抓住化学变化的特征是有新物质生成;遵循质量守恒定律,即反应前后原子的种类不改变、个数不增减,原子核不发生变化;化学变化的实质是旧化学键断裂和新化学键形成,二者缺一不可。物质的性质决定物质的用途,这就要求我们在日常学习中多从化学的视角关注生活,关注生活中的化学知识。题目较易。

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