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2016年高考试题汇编(生物)

2016年高考试题汇编(生物)

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各学科按知识点分类汇编,包含2016年全国各地高考考试题;排版工整,图片清晰正确,试题无误,全国统一标准答案;一线名师详析真题、考点定位、名师点睛。2017年高考考生必备复习资料,人手一本,悉历年高考重难点,悉历年高考新动向,悉历年高考高频考点,让备考变得轻松而高效!

内容简介

目 录

专题一 组成细胞的分子·········································································· 2

专题二 组成细胞的分子·········································································· 6

专题三 物质进出细胞的方式···································································· 11

专题四 酶与ATP··················································································· 16

专题五 光合作用与呼吸作用···································································· 22

专题六 细胞的生命历程(含减数分裂)····················································· 37

专题七 遗传的分子学基础······································································· 49

专题八 遗传的基本规律·········································································· 59

专题九 生物的变异、育种与进化······························································ 76

专题十 植物激素调节············································································· 88

专题十一 人和动物生命活动的调节··························································· 94

专题十二 内环境与稳态·········································································· 117

专题十三 种群和群落············································································· 122

专题十四 生态系统和生态环境的保护························································ 129

专题十五 生物技术实践·········································································· 136

专题十六 现代生物科技·········································································· 148

专题十七 课本基本实验和经典实验··························································· 158

专题十八 实验分析和设计······································································· 169

部分内容截取:

(2016课标1卷.4) 下列与神经细胞有关的叙述,错误的是

  1. ATP能在神经元线粒体的内膜上产生
  2. 神经递质在突触间隙中的移动消耗ATP
  3. 突触后膜上受体蛋白的合成需要消耗ATP
  4. 神经细胞兴奋后恢复为静息状态消耗ATP

【答案】B

【解析】在线粒体的内膜进行的有氧呼吸的第三阶段,其过程是有氧呼吸前两个阶段产生的[H]与氧结合生成H2O,并释放大量的能量,产生大量的ATP,A项正确;神经递质在突触间隙中是通过扩散作用而进行移动的,不消耗ATP,B项错误;突触后膜上受体蛋白的合成过程包括转录和翻译,需要消耗ATP,C项正确;神经细胞兴奋后恢复为静息状态涉及到相关离子通过主动运输的方式跨膜运输,因此消耗ATP,D项正确。

【考点定位】有氧呼吸、兴奋在神经纤维上的传导和在神经细胞间的传递、蛋白质合成

【名师点睛】本题以神经细胞为切入点,以兴奋在在神经细胞间传递的生命活动为情境,考查考生对ATP来源和去路及其与神经调节的关系的认知和理解能力。识记并理解相关的基础知识(ATP的形成途径、生理功能及其去路)、掌握兴奋在神经细胞间的传递过程以及动作电位和静息电位形成的机理是解答此题的关键,在平时的复习中注重归纳细胞内产生与消耗ATP的生理过程(如下表)能够提高解题速度。

转化场所

常见的生理过程

细胞膜

消耗ATP:主动运输、胞吞、胞吐

细胞质基质

产生ATP:细胞呼吸第一阶段

消耗ATP:一些需能反应

叶绿体

产生ATP:光反应

消耗ATP:暗反应和自身DNA复制、转录、蛋白质合成等

线粒体

产生ATP:有氧呼吸第二、三阶段

消耗ATP:自身DNA复制、转录,蛋白质合成等

核糖体

消耗ATP:蛋白质的合成

细胞核

消耗ATP:DNA复制、转录等

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