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2016地理60个易混易错点一网打尽 省时省力拿高分

2016地理60个易混易错点一网打尽 省时省力拿高分

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本资料将高中地理易混易错知识点一网打尽,每个知识点包含易混易错知识点典型试题精析、思路点拨、探究疑惑三个部分,实用性、针对性极强,重在帮助同学们在学习地理的过程中避免走弯路,节省时间,提高有效学习的效率,在应试中提高识别能力,练就“火眼金睛”,从而让你自信地走入考场,自豪地走出考场。

内容简介

1 等高线地形图····················································································· 3

2 地球的圈层结构·················································································· 7

3 地球的运动························································································ 10

4 经纬网······························································································ 18

5 太阳对地球的影响··············································································· 22

6 大气的受热过程·················································································· 25

7 地表形态变化的内、外力因素································································ 29

8 地壳物质循环····················································································· 35

9 锋面、低压(气旋)、高压(反气旋)等天气系统的特点····························· 39

10 全球气压带、风带的分布、移动规律及其对气候的影响····························· 42

11 世界洋流分布规律、洋流对地理环境的影响············································· 45

12 水循环过程和主要环节及地理意义························································ 49

13 自然地理环境的差异性······································································· 52

14 自然环境的整体性············································································· 58

15 地表形态对聚落及交通线路分布的影响·················································· 61

16 全球气候变化对人类活动的影响··························································· 65

17 自然灾害发生的主要原因及危害··························································· 69

18 自然资源对人类生存和发展的意义························································ 73

19 城市化···························································································· 76

20 城市空间结构··················································································· 79

21 人口迁移························································································· 82

22 人口增长与问题················································································ 85

23 工业生产与地理环境·········································································· 89

24 交通运输布局··················································································· 92

25 农业生产与地理环境·········································································· 95

26 人类活动地域联系的主要方式······························································ 98

27可持续发展的基本内涵········································································ 101

28人地关系思想发展的历史演变······························································· 103

29人类所面临的主要环境问题·································································· 105

30走可持续发展···················································································· 108

31产业转移—以东亚为例········································································ 110

32德国鲁尔区的探索·············································································· 115

33黄土高原水土流失的治理····································································· 122

34美国田纳西河流域的治理····································································· 127

35中国东北地区农业的可持续发展···························································· 131

36中国江苏省工业化和城市化的探索························································· 136

37资源的跨区域调配——以我国西气东输为例············································· 140

38地理信息技术的应用··········································································· 144

39地质灾害·························································································· 147

40海洋灾害·························································································· 151

41气象灾害·························································································· 153

42生物灾害·························································································· 157

43旅游景观的欣赏················································································· 160

44旅游开发与保护················································································· 163

45旅游资源·························································································· 165

46现代旅游及其作用·············································································· 171

47做一个合格的现代游客········································································ 175

48环境保护·························································································· 177

49海洋和海岸带···················································································· 183

50海洋环境问题与保护··········································································· 186

51海洋开发·························································································· 189

52海洋权益·························································································· 192

53城乡发展与城市化·············································································· 195

54城乡分布·························································································· 197

55城乡规划·························································································· 200

56城乡建设与生活环境··········································································· 203

57地表形态的变化················································································· 206

58地球的演化······················································································· 209

59太阳系和地月系················································································· 212

60宇宙································································································ 216

部分内容展示:

1.不清楚经纬线的长度变化

(1)所有的经线都是等长的半圆,理论上讲为赤道长度的一半。而纬线的长度则是从赤道向两极递减,赤道最长,南北纬60度的纬线圈为赤道长度的一半。

(2)同一经线上,纬度相差1°的地点间隔的实际距离是111千米(也有的教辅上是110千米,做题过程中同学们可根据实际情况选择最简单的进行计算,下同)。同一纬线上,经度相差1°的地点间隔的实际距离是111千米×cos θ(θ为该纬线的度数)。

(3)根据上述内容可以推断出,相邻纬线之间的长度间隔相等;相邻经线之间的长度间隔不相等,在赤道处最大,在极点处为0(这点在圆柱投影图中尤为重要)。

  1. 经纬网图判读不清

(1)在有经纬网或者经纬度的情况下,南北方向可以直接根据纬度判断,较为简单。难点是东西方向的判断,地球自转的方向无论南北半球都是自西向东,两点间判断方向要取最短距离,即两点间的劣弧段。也可按照经纬度来判断,若两地分别位于东、西经度,把两地经度相加,如果两地经度和小于180°,则东经的地点在东边,西经的地点在西边;如果两地经度和大于180°,则东经的地点在西边,西经的地点在东边;如果两地经度和等于180°,则两地互为东西方向,即说两地任意一地点在东边,另一地点在西边均可。

(2)在以极地为中心的俯视图中,应该按照地球自转方向来确定东西方向(注意按照劣弧的方向来判断);而就南北方向来说,不能直接按照两地的纬度去判断,应该注意沿线运动中,其南北方向有一个转折点(即从极点做该线的垂线,垂足丙为转折点),从经过转折点的前后分别找出其运动的南北方向。

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